Everything you want to know about Colon Cancer and Its Treatment

Colon Cancer or Colorectal Cancer begins in the final part of the digestive tract, which is known as the colon. Colorectal Cancer typically affects older adults over the age of 50. It usually begins as small non-cancerous (benign) clumps of cells called polyps that form inside the colon.

They often show very few symptoms, but it can be detected by screening. Hence, that is why doctors highly suggest regular testing for those who are at risk. It is essential to treat the disease and find symptoms, as early diagnosis is the key to removing cancer.

The Colon Cancer is caused due to consuming alcohol and smoking cigarette or consuming diets rich in fat and fibre. It can also be caused by exposure to radiations, long-standing ulcer or Crohn’s disease, and so on.

Some of its symptoms are a weakness, fatigue, unexplained weight loss, persistent abdominal discomfort, and rectal bleeding.

Colon cancer treatments depend on the size, location, and how far cancer has spread. The conventional treatments include surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

You can get this cancer treatment in Noida.

But, there are many stage-wise colon cancer treatments readily available for patients, such as –

Stage 0: Colon Cancer Treatments

Stage 0 colon cancer does not grow beyond the inner lining of the colon, and hence, it does not require much treatment. In most of the cases, this can also be done by removing the polyp or taking out the cancer area through Colonoscopy (local excision). If a tumour is too big to be removed, a part of the colon can be removed.

Stage 1: Colon Cancer Treatments

Stage 1 colon cancer is identified by its growth into the layers of the colon wall, but not into the nearby lymph nodes. It also includes tumours that were a part of a polyp. During Colonoscopy, if the colon is removed entirely, then the edges are also excluded.

If cancer cells are present at the corner of the polyp, then the polyp had to be removed in pieces, and another surgery will be required.

For cancers not in a polyp, partial Colectomy is done. Partial Colectomy is where the section of the colon with cancer and nearby lymph nodes is removed. This is the standard colon cancer treatment, and no more surgeries would be required.

Stage 2: Colon Cancer Treatments

Their growth identifies many Stage 2 colon cancers through the wall of the colon. It can be in the nearby tissues but not into the lymph nodes.

The standard colon cancer treatment, partial Colectomy is done to remove the infected parts of the colon along with the nearby lymph nodes. It is the only surgery required. Apart from this, the doctor may suggest adjuvant chemotherapy if cancer has a high risk of coming back.

Stage 3: Colon Cancer Treatments

Stage III colon cancer is identified by its growth into the nearby lymph nodes but not to the other parts of the body.

For this stage, the most suitable treatment would be partial Colectomy, which is removing the section of the colon with cancer. The nearby lymph nodes are followed by adjuvant chemotherapy.

For the patients who are not healthy enough for surgery, chemotherapy or Radiation therapy is suggested. But there are few types of tumours which are radioresistant. Hence, for them, the only solution is surgery.

Stage 4: Colon Cancer Treatments

It is identified as stage IV colon cancer, and it is from the colon to distant tissues and organs. Even though it commonly spreads to the liver, it can also spread to other areas such as the lungs, the brain, the lining of the abdominal cavity or to distant lymph nodes.

At this stage, there is a high possibility that surgery can cure cancer, but if it has only spread to a few areas (metastasis) in the liver or lungs, then it can be removed along with the colon cancer. Once removed, it can help you live longer. This would require the removal of the sections of the colon with a disease, along with the nearby lymph nodes in addition to surgically removing other affected areas. Chemotherapy is given before or after the surgery as well.

If the metastasis cannot be removed because they are too big or there are too many of them, chemotherapy is given. Chemotherapy is before any surgery, and it is called neoadjuvant chemotherapy. If the tumours shrink, surgery is done to remove them, followed by chemotherapy. In the case of tumours in the liver, they can be destroyed by either ablation or embolization.

If the infection area is extensive, then chemotherapy could be the primary treatment. Surgery might be required if the cancer is blocking the colon, or is likely to do so. For people with gene changes in their cancer cells, another option after initial chemotherapy would be treated with an immunotherapy drug such as Pembrolizumab. For advanced cancers, however, radiation therapy is done to prevent or relieve symptoms such as pain. It may shrink the tumours for a short while, but it is not likely to cure cancer. Even though there is numerous colon cancer treatment in Noida, but the health risk possibility is high. Therefore, it is highly recommended to take preventive measures for colon cancer such as maintaining a healthy weight, exercising, and drinking alcohol in moderation, stop smoking and eating a variety of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.